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Copernicus is a European system for monitoring the Earth. Data is collected by different sources, including Earth observation satellites and in-situ sensors. The data is processed and provides reliable and up-to-date information about six thematic areas: land, marine, atmosphere, climate change, emergency management and security. The land theme is divided into four main components: Global The Global Land Service provides a series of bio-geophysical products on the status and evolution of the land surface at global scale at mid and low spatial resolution. The products are used to monitor the vegetation, the water cycle and the energy budget. Pan-European The pan-European component provides information about the land cover and land use (LC/LU), land cover and land use changes and land cover characteristics. The latter includes information about imperviousness, forests, natural grasslands, wetlands, and permanent water bodies. Local The local component focuses on different hotspots, i.e. areas that are prone to specific environmental challenges and problems. This includes detailed LC/LU information for the larger EU cities (Urban Atlas), riparian zones along European river networks and NATURA 2000 sites. It will also include maps of coastal areas. In-situ All of the Copernicus services need access to in-situ data in order to ensure an efficient and effective use of Copernicus space-borne data. Next to data provided by participating countries, Earth observation from space also yields pan-European reference datasets, such as a Digital Elevation Model.
The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) provides regular and systematic reference information on the physical state, variability and dynamics of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the global ocean and the European regional seas. The observations and forecasts produced by the service support all marine applications. For instance, the provision of data on currents, winds and sea ice help to improve ship routing services, offshore operations or search and rescue operations, thus contributing to marine safety. The service also contributes to the protection and the sustainable management of living marine resources in particular for aquaculture, fishery research or regional fishery organisations. Physical and marine biogeochemical components are useful for water quality monitoring and pollution control. Sea level rise helps to assess coastal erosion. Sea surface temperature is one of the primary physical impacts of climate change and has direct consequences on marine ecosystems. As a result of this, the service supports a wide range of coastal and marine environment applications. Many of the data delivered by the service (e.g. temperature, salinity, sea level, currents, wind and sea ice) also play a crucial role in the domain of weather, climate and seasonal forecasting.
The Global Urban Footprint® (GUF®) dataset is based on the radar (SAR) satellite imagery of the German satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X. By creating the GUF database, scientists at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) have succeeded in using a newly developed method to generate a global raster map of the world’s built-up pattern in a so far unprecedented spatial resolution of about 12m per raster cell. Using a fully automated processing system, a global coverage of more than 180,000 very high resolution SAR images (3m ground resolution) has been analyzed acquired between 2010 and 2013. Thereby, the backscatter amplitudes of the SAR data have been used in combination with derived textural information to delineate human settlements in a highly automated, complex decision-making process. The evaluation procedure based mainly on radar signals detects the characteristic vertical structures of human habitations – primarily built-up areas. In addition, auxiliary data such as digital elevation models have been included to improve the classification process. In total, over 20 million datasets were processed with a combined volume of about 320 terabytes. The final global maps show three coverage categories (e. g. in a B&W representation): Built-up areas (vertical structures only) in black, non-built-up surfaces in white, areas of no coverage by TSX/TDX satellites (NoData) as most parts of the oceans in grey. The final product has been optimized for fast online access through web services by merging the 5° x 5° GUF tiles into a single global mosaic. Furthermore reduced resolution overviews have been generated with an interpolation algorithm, that computes the average value of all contribution pixels. The global mosaic uses PackBits compression to reduce file size. (GUF® and Global Urban Footprint® are protected as trademarks.)
Some of today’s most important environmental concerns relate to the composition of the atmosphere. The increasing concentration of the greenhouse gases and the cooling effect of aerosol are prominent drivers of a changing climate, but the extent of their impact is often still uncertain. At the Earth’s surface, aerosols, ozone and other reactive gases such as nitrogen dioxide determine the quality of the air around us, affecting human health and life expectancy, the health of ecosystems and the fabric of the built environment. Ozone distributions in the stratosphere influence the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface. Dust, sand, smoke and volcanic aerosols affect the safe operation of transport systems and the availability of power from solar generation, the formation of clouds and rainfall, and the remote sensing by satellite of land, ocean and atmosphere. To address these environmental concerns there is a need for data and processed information. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has been developed to meet these needs, aiming at supporting policymakers, business and citizens with enhanced atmospheric environmental information.
The SRTM X-SAR Elevation Mosaic is an aggregation of DLR's SRTM X-SAR DTED files. The DTED Level-2 files have been generated from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired by the German-Italian X-band interferometric SAR system during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) between February 11 and 22, 2000. The X-band system was flown and operated onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, along with a NASA C-Band SAR system. The SRTM project page at DLR provides additional information on the SRTM X-band mission (http://www.dlr.de/eoc/Portaldata/60/Resources/dokumente/7_sat_miss/SRTM-XSAR-DEM-DTED-1.1.pdf). Further details on the mission in general, the technology, accuracies, and applications are available in http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/SRTM_paper.pdf . The original DTED files have been grouped and mosaicked into 30 x 30 degree tiles. Six out of the total of 48 tiles were empty since they do not contain any DTED files. The resulting 42 tiles are stored as uncompressed GeoTIFF files. The files have been supplemented with nine cubic convolution resampled overviews for fast web delivery.
Copernicus EMS - Mapping provides all actors involved in the management of natural disasters, man-made emergency situations and humanitarian crises, with timely and accurate geospatial information derived from satellite remote sensing and completed by available in situ or open data sources. The information generated by the service can be used as supplied (e.g. as digital or printed map outputs). It may be further combined with other data sources (e.g. as digital feature sets in a geographic information system). In both cases it may support geospatial analysis and decision making processes of emergency managers. Copernicus EMS - Mapping is provided during all phases of the emergency management cycle, in two temporal modes, and free of charge for the users. It can be activated only by authorised users.
The Copernicus Climate Change Service is designed to respond to changes in the environment and society associated with climate change. The service will provide information for monitoring and predicting climate change and help to support adaptation and mitigation strategies. It will provide access to several climate indicators (e.g. temperature increase, sea level rise, ice sheet melting, ocean warming) and climate indices (e.g. based on records of temperature, precipitation, drought events) for both the identified climate drivers and the expected climate impacts.
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Zur räumlichen Unterteilung von Gebieten und Daten werden unterschiedlich große, nach vollen UTM-Kilometerwerten abgegrenzte Quadrate (Kacheln) definiert. Dieses Gitter bildet Kacheln mit einer Ausdehnung von 5x5 KM.
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